The Sound of Synthesizers. Info Connections Comments Shares. Search Myspace Start typing Please try again. Photo from. You're now in slide show mode.
Forgot password? Keep me signed in. Your email? The email you used to create your account. The last part of your Myspace URL. Ex: myspace. Bootleggers Advise Three Little Birds Jul 22, by Assembly of Dust. Cluttered Speculator Into The Mystic Roads Jul 21, by Assembly of Dust. Assembly of Dust Fri. Man With a Plan Feb 19, by Assembly of Dust. Assembly of Dust Sun. Lone Tree Myth of Mine All that I am Now Nov 19, by Assembly of Dust.
Converted to Taped, mastered and Nov 18, by Assembly of Dust. Sep 10, by Assembly of Dust. Sep 9, by Assembly of Dust. Valhalla Vaulted Sky Utterly Addled Fountain Mud Spring Draw Arkansas Down Cool Water Amplified Messiah Sep 8, by Assembly of Dust.
Aug 13, by Assembly of Dust. Little By Little Paul Henry Lost and Amazed Man With A Plan Look At Miss Ohio Jul 16, by Assembly of Dust. Jun 25, by Assembly of Dust. Jun 24, by Assembly of Dust. Apr 23, by Assembly of Dust. Source: Multi - Track. The agenda is simple: More music. Thank you Kimmo for the great answers. Looking foward to the new album and the next 10" inbetweenies! For me, it's moved in full circle, it's like I'm coming home again now Making music is one of the best ways to do so.
Non-stop scrambling on the hamster wheel to become the perfect productive citizen! Final word? They prevented instrument lighting from reflecting onto the windows. Program, verb, and noun data numbers were entered from the keyboard and displayed in the rectangular screen above. The yellow, rubber covered, forward-leaning rods on either side of panel 5 at left and a similar set for the LMP on panel 6 were hand-holds for balance in zero gravity since the astronauts were not seated, but rather stood in front of the control panels held in position by cable restraints from the side panels and hooked to each side of their suits and attached under the front console see Fig.
Finish that off and then start the maneuver. This resulted in floodlights blinking and the illumination of the yellow PWR caution light of the Caution and Warning display on the front panel. The Descent Stage batteries had silver and zinc electrodes immersed in a liquid potassium hydroxide electrolyte and provided a high power density of three ampere-hours per pound.
Less power-dense versions of these Eagle Pitcher batteries, at two and a half ampere-hours per pound, would power the Ascent Stage when we left the Moon or encountered some Abort situation requiring sole use of that Stage.
The batteries had experienced a difficult development and manufacturing history at Eagle Pitcher; but close attention by Kelly and other Grumman engineers finally overcame early problems in meeting qualification standards in time for Apollo 9, the first flight test of Lunar Module LM-3, the Spider, by Jim McDivitt and Rusty Schweikart.
Challenger could now supply its oxygen to the cabin if needed. We ended up with a high-pressure 2, psi oxygen supply tank in the Descent Stage, and, smaller, low-pressure tanks in the Ascent Stage. If the cabin became partially or completely depressurized during these dynamic events, the system would maintain pressure and oxygen flow to the suits.
Cabin and suit air circulated through a replaceable Lithium Hydroxide LiOH canister to remove respiratory carbon dioxide and filter out any particles introduced into the cabin, such as lunar dust.
This cold water, through a heat exchanger, cooled the water-glycol circuit that, in turn, cooled electronics, suit oxygen, and the water that flowed through our water-cooled underwear. I systematically continued to work through the LM Activation Checklist. Then, I began to set the 15 switches and circuit breakers needed to activate and control direct S-Band communications with Mission Control at the next AOS.
Meanwhile, back in America, Evans was preparing for our eventual undocking. We suggest you use the present attitude for your [P]52 and then maneuver. NOUN 5 gave the angular difference in star position from that predicted from the last alignment. These numbers would provide a good indication on how well the guidance system had performed, so far.
About 1 minute to LOS. Nothing further for you. Standing rather than sitting in the Lunar Module provided each of the crew head mobility that gives an excellent range of view out the small, inwardly sloped, triangular windows in front of each position. Standing also gave greater arm reach than sitting. Breakers with white dots indicate those that should be open prior to EVAs. Set it …30 seconds from now. Set it for 15 [seconds because] I missed it [the first time].
Okay, 10, 11…28, 29, Mark! I moved in to provide cooling by activation of the Primary Glycol Loop. The oxygen hose from America that I had been using went back for Evans to stow in America, awaiting my return from Taurus-Littrow. I recorded the time of activation of the cooling water flow to the sublimator so that Mission Control could model water usage based on various pre-mission equipment tests and the real-time temperature data they would have from our telemetry.
The yellow tape strip with black bars on the top row encloses the four quad thruster switches of the Reaction Control System RCS. The white arrow in the third row marks the Glycol Pump Secondary circuit breaker referred to later in text. Activation and checkout of this essential system would take place when thrusters had warmed sufficiently and we were in communication with Mission Control.
As Cernan turned on the RCS heaters, I rapidly cycled the circuit breaker for the Caution and Warning CW instrumentation to make sure that the CW display correctly indicated that the regulators for the separate A and B fuel and oxidizer flow paths were still closed. We would open those propellant paths to the thrusters prior to undocking from America and after the thruster temperatures had time to stabilize.
Charles Stark Draper, designed these revolutionary computer controlled guidance systems. This contract was let only two months after Kennedy issued his challenge to go to the Moon and literally was the first major contract in the Apollo Program.
Although many costly details had to be added to the proposed design, its basic conceptual elements remained constant: a versatile digital computer; an optical sextant for navigational star and lunar landmark sightings; an inertial, gyroscope and accelerometer-based guidance platform; a display and keyboard unit to interface with the astronauts; and a variety of supporting electronics. At the time of the contract, no specifications yet existed for how accurate the system had to be; however, that would be determined as more became known about the Moon and Apollo spacecraft performance.
Nonetheless, the final product, its computer built by Raytheon and the guidance unit built by Honeywell, performed magnificently and would guide both America to the Moon and permit Challenger to land in a narrow lunar valley. For Cernan and me, preparing for the final Apollo lunar landing, not all of the sequence of indications related to the PINGS self-test came up as expected.
After writing down those differences, we decided to press on with the Activation Checklist and discuss the self-check anomalies with Mission Control when we again had contact.
These systems included vents, landing gear, regulators, and the like. Meanwhile, sometimes speaking in the third person and sometimes to Cernan calling through the tunnel, Evans began to talk himself through suiting up and taking star sightings for the P52 we would need for both spacecraft before Undocking.
I can put my suit on at the same time. With that done, I tackled getting the S-Band, long distance communication system up and running. This was never a certain task, involving activating and positioning a Steerable Antenna and getting the gage indications of uplink signal strength as high as possible.
This meant that hand controller inputs for attitude and velocity changes would be processed through the PINGS computer which would command the appropriate RCS thruster firings, taking into account the geometry of the thruster quads and any thruster failures that might exist.
With this decision, the PINGS computer included the capability to integrate manual control inputs, thruster commands, VHF ranging, star sighting updates, attitude and acceleration sensing, a variety of crew inputs, navigation and instrument panel displays, and telemetry to and from Mission Control. How do you read?
This is Challenger. Lots of background noise at the moment. How do you read the LMP? Lots of background noise, though. How do you read, [now]? Meanwhile, Evans, in cooperation with Mission Control and Ken Mattingly as Capcom for his separate activities, moved to complete all the tasks he had to perform all alone in preparation for undocking the Challenger from America prior to our descent into the valley of Taurus-Littrow. I finally got my suit on!
It sounds like the kitchen [which] is what reminded us of it the scissors. You ought to get that done before you close up [the tunnel], Ron.
RCA served as a subcontractor to Grumman for electronics systems. Of course, full compatibility and as much commonality as possible were needed between the spacecraft and EVA systems. How do you read the LM? I can hear the antenna rumbling up there, but…I have still not peaked [on signal strength]. Still reading 3. It looks like a good lock [by the antenna on the uplink carrier] to us.
Go ahead. Apparently, the system had to warm up more than had been modeled in the Lunar Module Simulator and the squelch level also was more sensitive than we had experienced during training. Communication systems have a mind of their own, believe me. These VHF checks actually should have been done earlier, before the S-BAND activation, but Evans had fallen behind the timeline with suiting up and the trouble finding stars he could sight on for his P The keyboard came up with in R One more item: in our DAP setting, we are reading in our [Activation] Checklist [that] for R-1 [we should see] plus and for R-2, plus It just reversed those numbers.
Are you ready for a landing gear? We got a good one [in view] out front! The white arrows mark the landing gear deploy switch lower and its talkback window upper. Note also the attachment clips for the cable restraints at bottom left.
Challenger moved closer to becoming a lunar landing craft. Can you look at the capture latches? Go ahead [with the read-back].
Ready with DOI-2 when you are. For Challenger , the burn would give a slight reduction in orbital velocity and lower our altitude nm at PDI and thus save us fuel for landing. In this example, DOI-2 ignition would occur The DOI-2 burn, therefore, would occur in about four and a half hours. We had a lot of Checklist to go through before then. So how about doing a VERB 49 tweak back to the original undocking attitude. VERB 49 let Evans enter the nominal attitude of 0, , and 0 and command the computer to use his RCS make the small change to be back at that attitude.
Then it was my turn with the batteries. Stand by. As this interchange took place, Evans was trying to finish up closing out the tunnel as well as check out the capture latches that had not worked properly during extraction of Challenger from the S-IVB.
I forgot to release the docking latches. I got two barber poles. Mighty fine. Extend latch is still engaged. How does that sound? Next, Cernan set up the E-Memory Operator erasable memory in the computer and put the computer in its idle Program P00 for the time being. The differences between the two alignments, however, were less than a degree in all three axes. The Ascent Batteries would be put back on line before Powered Descent so that they would be ready if we had to Abort off the Descent Stage.
A bad mark could be rejected using a button on the AOT. For reference, when a MARK is taken, the computer records the time of each mark and the angles of each IMU gimble gyroscope rotation axis. The plane that included the star is defined by the angle between any two marks and is recorded on a counter.
That angle then is entered into the P52 computer program and could be used to realign the IMU gimbals. Each alignment required observations on two stars. These lamps made any lens imperfections show up as red while stars would be white points. Heaters in the AOT prevented fogging in the optical train. While Cernan set up for the fine alignment, I brought Mission Control up to date on a few items I had noted as I brought systems on line when out of communications.
The secondary glycol pump, when I started it, the sound and the pressure [gage reading] were ragged. After about 15 seconds, it the pump sounded smooth. It had a sound as if it was cavitating a little bit; but, after that, it was smooth. Forget that one. You need some help [with that P52]? For the next fifteen minutes, Cernan marked on the two stars called for in the Checklist while I loaded the computer with the angle data he read off the AOT counter.
Or no, what star? You ready to Mark? What do you want first? I need it to hold. Okay, you ready [to Mark]? Which one…Cursor? The angles actually were in hundredths of degrees — point You ready to Mark…Cursor? All of a sudden, we heard from Evans. Now I have to unlock it [to maneuver back to attitude. You want me to maneuver back to attitude, Gene? You want to go back to regular attitude? Do you read me [Gene]? Then Cernan changed his mind about the last Mark.
I want to reject it. One more on the Cursor. Son of a gun! That looked to be a pretty good alignment from where I saw it. Ground will have them. I always worried about a loss of communications at a time when we might need to do a rapid re-alignment by ourselves. Each jet produced pounds of thrust. Note that each F-1 rocket engine of the Saturn V first stage produced 1.
As the result of this configuration we would have two jets with thrust along each plus and minus direction of the spacecraft roll and pitch axes and four jets with thrust along both the plus and minus yaw axis.
In addition, the four RCS quads also incorporated two fully redundant identical but separate systems of eight jets within the total of sixteen jets. If one system failed, the other could provide attitude control.
The fuel and oxidizer are hypergolic chemicals; that is, they ignite on contact, eliminating the need for an ignition source such as a spark. The Descent and Ascent Engines used the same fuel and oxidizer, and a cross-feed existed between the RCS and Ascent Engine fuel and oxidizer tanks in case the need arose to share propellants during an Abort or abnormal Ascent from the lunar surface.
All in all, we were given a very ingenious approach to attitude control without compromising crew visibility and one that included the capability to thrust along or rotate about each spacecraft axis. All this switch cycling insured that no valve positions had changed during the heavy launch vibration and staging shocks while on the Saturn V.
All of the switches mentioned here, except Heater Controls on panel 3 , are to the left of the eight ball of panel 2— see Fig. Top Left — light blue double arrow : Mission timer at left in hr, min, sec; Event timer to the right in min, sec. Heater control temperature gage upper red arrow : temperature monitor rotary switch; lower red arrow : four detents to right of vertical measure RCS quads 1,2,3,4.
The four detents measure left-to-right the ranges for He, propellant, fuel and O2 manifolds. Helium would be used for pressurization of the propellant tanks.
Then we ran through the pre-pressurization temperatures and pressures one more time with Cernan going down the list and me responding. Using only the Logic System A to fire the explosive devices that would open the RCS to pressurization also allowed a check on System A to be sure it was fully functional.
This is a good illustration of always being sure we knew the status of all redundant and backup systems. Okay [to FIRE]?
We heard it [the Explosive Devices detonation]! Looks good. Cernan noted. RCS looks good. You ready? This was so that we could test command signals to the RCS without firing the thrusters.
Both controllers at my position are visible in Fig. So we can [both see it]. Okay…right — Roll right. Roll left. Pitch up. Pitch down. These steps are designed to enable scaffolded epitopes to elicit antibodies with a breadth of neutralizing activity similar to that displayed by the broadly reactive mAbs.
Much progress has been made in identifying human anti-V3 mAbs, and a large number of anti-V3 mAbs have been produced Gorny and Zolla-Pazner, ; Gorny et al.
Many anti-V3 mAbs, especially those selected from animals immunized with V3 peptides Goudsmit et al. However, a considerable number of anti-V3 mAbs isolated from chronically infected human individuals and selected for specificity with V3 fusion proteins have been found to be broadly reactive Binley et al. Efforts have been made to understand the origins of this broad reactivity from a genetic as well as structural basis Gorny et al.
The structural basis of its antigen recognition has been investigated using both NMR and protein crystallography, showing that D has a highly unusual antigen-binding site Dhillon et al.
It possesses an extended complementarity determining region CDR H3, which protruds from the body of the molecule and forms main-chain interactions with the N-terminal region of V3 flanking the GPGR turn. Thus, the two antibodies are highly homologous in their amino acid sequence. The structural basis for this narrower reactivity and reduced potency is not yet understood. A structural comparison of homologous human mAbs derived from similar genetic origins but with very different antigenic properties would help to further our understanding of the structural basis of antigen recognition, and potentially advance HIV-1 vaccine development by facilitating the design of immunogens inducing broadly neutralizing antibodies against the V3 region of gp Zolla-Pazner, We have therefore examined the structural differences between these two homologous antibodies by crystallizing Fab fragments of D and D in complex with V3 peptides carrying the GPGQ and GPGR motifs, respectively.
Despite the sequence similarities between mAbs D and D Figure 1A , Supplement Figure S1 , they were previously shown to display different binding affinities to V3 peptides, and different patterns of peptide cross-reactivity and virus neutralizing activity Gorny et al.
Therefore, although anti-V3 mAbs D and D have considerable sequence similarities, they display very different reactivity profiles. A Protein sequence alignments of the variable regions for both heavy and light chains of D and D.
Boxes indicate the CDR regions Kabat definition , while asterisks and arrowheads mark the residues making direct or water-mediated interactions in the reported structures with the V3 epitopes, respectively. Only sequences corresponding to the regions of V3 in the structures that have direct contacts with the antibodies are shown 9 amino acids for D and 11 for D , and they are numbered at the bottom in the HXB2 numbering scheme.
The colors depict the sequence similarities. The structure was refined to 2. We will follow the Kabat and Wu convention Kabat et al. The Fab light chain, heavy chain and the V3 peptide are colored cyan, green and magenta, respectively. Side chains of the residues of the antibodies that have direct contacts with the V3 epitopes are shown. C The mAbs D and D D are shown as surface representations to illustrate the ladle shape of the binding sites. Note that the bowl part of the D binding site, with an additional spout arrow , is much shallower than that of D.
The antigen-binding site adopts a shape similar to a soup ladle Figures 2A and 2C. Note the two water molecules water 1 and 2 at the antigen binding site of D. A Electron densities the 2Fo-Fc map contoured at 1. Note that water 1 is coordinated tetrahedrally by the side chains of four surrounding residues. Note also that Gln P does not interact directly with Asp H95 but mediated by another water molecule water 2.
Interestingly, in addition to the Asp H95 that is buried in the deep center of the binding site, there are 2 additional charged residues at the D binding site, Arg H50 and Asp H58 , with the latter placed at the very outer edge of the binding site Figures 4A , 5A and 5B. This water molecule is tightly bound at the bottom of the antigen-binding site, and is coordinated tetrahedrally by the side chains of Asn H35 , Arg H50 , Asp H95 and Trp L96 Figure 5B.
Interestingly, Trp H47 interacts directly with the V3 epitope, although it does not belong to any of the CDR loops Figure 1A , contrary to the common perception that only residues in the CDR loops interact directly with epitopes. However, there are some crucial differences. Second, although Arg P forms a salt bridge 2. Furthermore, different from D, there are no alternately charged residues and mediating water molecules at the bottom of the D binding site. Our structures show that they do have highly similar antigen binding sites, shaped like a soup ladle, with the three key structural determinants Figure 2.Disc 3 - The Other Side 2 ( minutes): 1. Home For Christmas - November UK 12" single on EMI 12EMP , Non-Album B-side to "Moments Of Pleasure" 2. One Last Look Around The House Before We Go - February UK CD single on EMI CDEM , Non-Album Instrumental B-side to "Love And Anger" /5().